66 lanman hutong

烂缦胡同66号院

BEIJING 北 京

Building Conditions

No.66 Lanman Hutong is a typical courtyard that is occupied by many households. This renovation project started with two traditional houses and one privately-built house. The traditional houses are located to the south and are built with timber roof structures that rest on lateral brick walls.  However, there is only lighting from the north, without any southern sunlight. The privately-built structure is located to the north and needs to be reconstructed. The project is deeply rooted in the courtyard that one needs to take a 50m walk in order to get there.

 

Building Programs

West house is reserved for the host while east house is reprogrammed for their son's home and studio. The house to the north is designated as the dining room that can be shared by both houses. Independent privacies and communications are equally considered.

 

Architectural Design

West house was inserted with a volume that extends the living space from within. The interior space is reshaped by programs that are situated along the edges, such as a triangular cabinet, a sitting window area, and a bathroom. A small kitchen volume is attached with this living volume via a transparent roof canopy at the top, separated by a public passageway. The official living space is fully deployed on the ground floor of the west house, with an atrium space that separates the two. The atrium holds the vertical staircase that leads to the bedroom on the mezzanine level, as well as the opportunity for natural lighting and ventilation. A full-height curtain can be closed in order to achieve absolute privacy for the functions within the house.

 

A full rectilinear volume is inserted into the east house, partitioning it into a studio on the ground floor and a bedroom on the second floor, maximizing its space potential. A large working desk dominates the studio space to the north, with a wide open glass window looking to the north wall. A foyer is located to the northwest corner with a cabinet that stretches along the west wall. The east and south walls are equipped with open shelves and cabinets that hold miscellaneous office items. A metal staircase spirals up at the southwest corner. Surrounding the old date tree that grows to the east of the house, a volume is inserted to hold a small tatami space that overlooks the tree and a bathroom that can be closed off entirely. This volume also serves as a small terrace that can be accessed from the east window of the bedroom on the 2nd floor. The bedroom space are well lit and ventilated with three windows that open to different directions: a dormer that opens high up to the south, a vertical window that opens to the east, and a horizontal window that opens low to the north. 

 

The dining room to the north is very close to the east house, with only a 1m wide public passageway. It's impossible to get light through a wall mounted window, however big it is. As a result, the south wall of the dining room is completely sealed off for service area, open counter and cabinet as such, with only a 750 square opening for ventilation. Rather, a full-sized clerestory window is introduced to get full access to natural light to the south. This 3mx1.1m single-paned window not only brings maximum light to the space, but also frames the sky, the old tree, and the roof of the traditional house into the picture. A trio of high windows is located to the north wall. An entrance door and a small high window are opened on west wall, the latter of which brings the tree canopy in the neighboring courtyard into the view. With all these different views, the dining room has become a spiritual citadel in the family activities rather than merely serving as a place to dine.

 

Construction System

There is little challenge to building structure and materials since the construction is on a strict budget. The traditional houses are built with timber and bricks. All other additions are constructed with steel frame structure with bricks as infill. The roof slabs are cast in concrete. The exterior walls are fitted with insulation panels that are applied with plaster and grey paint finishes. Windows and doors use aluminum extrusion systems and double insulated glasses. Interior floors are finished with either bamboo or self-leveling cement.

 

Spatial Surprises

Unexpected spatial surprises came up after project completion, though it all started with an effort to resolve functions for daily uses. The south wall of the dining room provides a tranquil background for the workstation of the studio. The shadow of ending tiles on the eave of the traditional house is projected onto this wall with daily and seasonal changes. The public passageway is completely opened up with a setback on the clerestory window, bringing the tree canopy in the neighboring courtyard into the space. The north window to the studio, together with the north wall, privatizes the public passageway visually, transforming it into a small courtyard space. One can only realize its publicity when someone is passing by: an interesting blur of what's public and what's private in a courtyard house. The historical occupation of the courtyard renders its fabric so organic that the complex shape of the plan is beyond design. Together with the oblique line of the clerestory window, this shape becomes a 3-dimensional boundary that is consisted with traditional and modern building edges.  The old date tree is brought into the picture. There surprises can only be found in a complex courtyard renovation project such as this one.

ur company and your services. You can use this space to go into a little more detail about your company. Talk about your team and what services you provide. Tell your visitors the story of how you came up with the idea for your business and what makes you different from your competitors. Make your company stand out and show your visitors who you are.

建筑现状

66号院是典型的大杂院空间。本次改造的基础为两间北向正房和一间南向自建房。正房为典型的木构屋顶,山墙承重的结构体系,只有北向采光,无任何南向采光。南向自建房年久失修,需要在本次改造中重建。三间房子处于66号院深处,人们进院后要走过50米的距离才能够到达。

 

建筑功能

西边正房为主人居室,东边正房为主人孩子居室及工作室,北边自建房为两代人共享的餐厅。这样功能划分既保证了两代人生活各自的私密性,又提供了一家人交流互动的空间。

 

建筑设计

西房主人间向北面加建出小的前厅,将正房起居空间延伸,并由一个三角形衣帽柜、临窗坐凳与卫生间等功能重新定义室内空间。北边一个集约的厨房与此加建小前厅空间由透明顶棚连为一体,中间由公共走道分开。这两块加建的平面形状都是历史遗留,此次改造重新赋予了其新的使用功能。正房内部为起居空间,夹层布置卧室功能,加建的起居空间与正房内部起居空间连为一体。中间连接空间通高,提供竖向交通与采光通风。此处通高的帘子又可将门厅与正房内的空间隔离开来,达到起居与卧室区域的绝对私密。

 

东房插入了一个完整长形体量,将正房划为一层的工作室和二层的卧室,最大限度地利用了空间。一层工作室唯一面向北边的界面为最重要的工作台,通宽的玻璃窗面向北面实墙。西北角为入户门以及小玄关,布置有衣帽柜。工作室东墙南墙为书架及文件柜,西侧为衣柜与储物柜。楼梯在西南角旋转上至夹层的卧室空间。房子东侧围绕着现有枣树伸出一个体量,布置小休息厅及卫生间。此体量屋顶为露台空间,可从二层卧室到达。二层卧室空间在南边高处开有老虎窗,东墙开有可到达室外露台的竖窗,北墙则是低矮的通长横窗,最大限度地满足了采光通风需要。

 

北边餐厅由于和南房距离非常近(只有一米的过道),南向的任何常规开窗都会被南房遮挡,而不具备任何采光意义。因而南墙完全封闭,布置服务功能,而在立面上方采用天光,将阳光直接引入屋内。南墙2100米之下除了一个750见方的通风窗口外,完全设计为橱柜与开放导台的服务区。在2100之上为3mx1.1m的通长天窗,不止采光,而且将枣树、屋脊与天空纳入至景框的构图之中。北墙上为通长开窗,西墙为入口以及一个高窗,高窗将64号院的槐树也作为景色纳入到房间中来。餐厅不仅为一家人聚餐的场所,更成为了家庭活动的精神堡垒。

 

建造系统

由于改造对造价控制比较苛刻,因而建造采用最常规的结构和材料。两间正房为传统的砖墙承重结构,屋顶为木结构。其余加建均采用钢框架加砌体砖的承重结构,屋面为现浇混凝土板。外墙为保温板加抹灰涂料,洞口采用断桥铝门窗系统,地面为铺设地暖的水泥自流平或竹地板。

 

建成惊喜

本次改造的最核心问题乃是如实解决使用功能,但对于建筑外部空间的营造,结果却出乎预料。北房餐厅的服务区为南房工作台提供了安静的背景,南房瓦当的影子会在这个背景上随着季节产生变幻的投影。而退台的天窗也把之间的走道空间完全打开:64号院的槐树竟然可以被纳入到这个细长的庭院中来。另外由于南房工作室通长玻璃窗的存在,使公共走道在某种意义上变成了私密的庭院空间,只有在行人走过的时候,才意识到其公共性的存在,模糊了公共与私密的界限。另外,由于杂院历史生长的有机性,平面所产生的斜线折扭形状并非是设计刻意而为,加之北房餐厅在立面上采光天窗形成的斜线,使走道/庭院在某个角度形成了平面与立面的立体围合,将院内的枣树立体地纳入了新老建筑轮廓线共同构成的景框。这些超乎设计的惊喜也许只有在杂院改造过程中才会产生。

 

© 2020 by BWAO

lanman (1)